Uncategorized English

Blood Storage Conditions and Transportation

Blood Storage Conditions

Just as with different foods, vaccines, and other protective products, blood has various storage conditions. Blood storage conditions are generally applied and include a cold chain, as in the other issues mentioned. The cold chain covers preserving and transporting blood and other blood storage conditions from the moment they are taken until they reach the other person to be transferred. Just as the deterioration of the cold chain in foods can cause the deterioration of the food and the poisoning of the person consuming it, the decline of the cold chain in the blood also poses a danger to the person to whom the blood will be transferred.

Blood bank coolers, plasma freezers, incubators, blood transport boxes, and similar equipment that provide a deep-freezing environment are used to provide blood storage conditions. These types of equipment have become even more reliable with the advancement of technology.

Blood Storage Conditions for Blood and Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells and blood storage conditions always require a blood bank refrigerator. They should be stored in these cabinets at 2-6 degrees Celsius. An integrated temperature monitoring apparatus is placed in these refrigerators for red blood cells and blood, and this apparatus gives a warning via an alarm if the temperature is not evenly distributed among the elements inside. The most important point in ensuring blood storage conditions is to catch and maintain the right temperature. Bacterial contamination and growth in the blood are reduced to a minimum at 6 degrees Celsius, specified as the aforementioned upper limit. In this way, the correct blood storage conditions are provided.

If the lower limit for blood storage conditions is 2 degrees Celsius, it prevents the hemolysis of red blood cells. For this reason, the temperature of the red blood cells mustn’t be lowered below this lower level. Otherwise, when the cells are transferred in a hemolyzed state, it can cause serious kidney problems and bleeding that can lead to death.

Blood Bags Shelf-Life

Although the shelf-life varies for each blood bag, the average shelf-life can be expressed as 35-42. If the temperature of the room where the blood bag is located is above 25 degrees Celsius, additional equipment, such as a blood transport box or isolator carrier, should be provided to keep the temperature below 10 degrees Celsius according to blood storage conditions. The blood in the blood bags transported in this way must be transferred within 30 minutes. If use is not required, blood should be returned to the center immediately.

Fresh Frozen Plasma

Fresh-frozen plasma is plasma that is quickly frozen 6 to 8 hours after donating blood. It is stored in Blood Transfusion centers at a minimum of -40 degrees Celsius. If the aforementioned blood storage conditions are not met, coagulation factors (such as Factor VIII and Factor V) begin to deteriorate, and the amount of blood decreases, which goes against the purpose of the transfusion. The shelf-life determined for this item is one year.

Fresh frozen plasma must be thawed before transfusion. This process is done in blood centers using the plasma melting bath method.

The ideal storage condition for fresh frozen plasma should be transported in a blood transport box with a temperature of 2-6 degrees Celsius at 30-37 degrees Celsius (it has a life of 30-45 minutes this way). Fresh frozen plasma should be transfused within thirty minutes of thawing. If fresh frozen plasma is not used immediately, it can be transfused within 24 hours by maintaining it in this temperature range (2-6 degrees Celsius). Thawed plasma cannot be re-frozen and must be destroyed in these cases. For this reason, fresh frozen plasma should be processed when and where it is needed.

Erythrocyte Suspension

Erythrocyte suspension is the expression used for blood with ¾ of its plasma, or all of it removed. When the erythrocyte suspension is prepared completely, it will contain an average of 200 ml of erythrocytes. When added preservatives, this total reaches an average volume of 300 ml. The hematocrit rate is in the range of 65-75%.

Blood storage depots are essential for blood units containing erythrocytes. The storage conditions for them are in the range of 2-6 degrees Celsius. In cases where the temperature is uneven or variable, hemolysis occurs. From this point of view, erythrocyte storage can only be done in the blood storage cabinet.

Storage times vary for blood units containing erythrocytes. The main variable for this is the anticoagulant/preservative fluids used. According to the liquids used, the blood storage conditions and times are as follows:

  • 21 days for Acid-Citrate-Dextrose (ACD) and Citrate Phosphate-Dextrose (CPD),
  • 35 days for CPD-Adenine (CPDA-1),
  • 42 days for Saline-sodium chloride, Adenine, Glucose, and Mannitol (SAG-M).

Transfusion and infusion rates also vary for erythrocyte suspension. While the maximum foreseen for 1 unit is 4 hours, the actual transfer should be done within 2-3 hours on average.

In adults, 1 unit of erythrocyte suspension transfer increases hemoglobin by about 1-1.5 g/dl and Htc by 3-5%.

Platelet Suspension

Manual and automated methods prepare platelets and then store at 22°C -24°C in a platelet agitator cum incubator to maintain platelet function to prevent or stop spontaneous bleeding in patients with thrombocytopenia or hypoplastic anemia or bone marrow. For separation of platelets, as lower temperatures affect platelet function and separation, whole blood should be kept at 20-24 degrees Celsius before the procedure. Platelets should be prepared 8 hours after phlebotomy and stored at 20-24 degrees Celsius with constant shaking.

The platelet suspension prevents clumping, which can cause loss of viability. Platelets have a shelf-life of 3-5 days, depending on the type of blood bag used. As they are stored at room temperature, there is a risk of bacterial contamination, so the temperature in the platelet storage area should be kept at ambient temperature below + +.

Platelet stocks are not kept at the hospital blood bank but are ordered from the National Blood Service (NBS) for certain patients as needed. Due to the risk of bacterial contamination, they are kept in the Blood Transfusion laboratory under special blood storage conditions that maintain their clinical effectiveness and have a shelf-life of only five days from a donation. Platelets should not be refrigerated. They are given as an adult or pediatric “therapeutic dose” and must be transfused immediately after being collected from the blood donation room. Rh-negative premenopausal women should receive Rh(D) Negative platelets whenever possible.

Blood Storage Conditions and Patients

Blood should only remain outside designated temperature-controlled storage areas for up to 30 minutes. Blood is an excellent culture medium for bacterial growth; therefore, it is stored in approved refrigerators at 2-6°C and has a shelf-life of 35 days from a donation. There are legal requirements for temperature regulation and alarm systems to store blood. The hospital has approved blood bank refrigerators in the pathology department’s blood problem room and the theater pantry room. Blood donation vehicles are also equipped to maintain these critical storage conditions while transporting blood to and from donation sites.

Blood should never be stored at home or in any other refrigerators. It should be removed from the Blood Bank storage one unit at a time only when a transfusion needs to begin within 30 minutes. To avoid the risk of bacterial growth in blood storage conditions, the transfusion should be completed within 4 hours of removing the package from the blood bank refrigerator.

Bacterial contamination of blood products may be the largest cause of death from transfusion accidents. Suppose a unit of blood has been removed from the refrigerator for more than 30 minutes, and there is no possibility of imminent transfusion. In that case, the blood bank should be notified, and the unit should be marked “Unsafe to Transfuse.” The unit will then be taken directly to a staff member at the blood bank for safe disposal.

Blood Storage Conditions and Recommendations

As we mentioned above, blood storage conditions vary according to the elements in it and the state of the blood. Therefore, it should be confirmed by authorized persons that the correct temperatures and storage conditions are applied. These blood storage conditions must be strictly enforced to prevent contamination and potentially fatal bleeding. Ultra-deep freezers, blood cabinets, freezer cabinets, and outdoor coolers provide blood storage conditions. Coolermed, one of the domestic productions, also meets this need with various medical coolers. With systems that can control temperature fluctuations and advanced technology blood storage units, it is possible to apply storage conditions with health, with products such as Coolermed, pioneers in health and value people.

The Role of Blood Cooler/Freezer

Blood is frequently and urgently needed for surgeries. Considering this, it is very important to provide proper blood storage conditions. Therefore, a blood cooler is required in medical laboratories, hospitals, and blood banks. Combined with predetermined conditions, they are preferred to keep the blood obtained from blood donors intact.

While answering the question of what blood cooler/freezer combis are, the standard temperature value stands out. They offer a standard temperature value so that the movement and functions of blood cells are not impaired. Despite the problems that may occur, the cabinets are equipped with different functions. To work at their best, they should be assembled correctly, possible issues should be foreseen, and attention should be paid to the calibration standard.

Common Issues and Solutions for Blood Cooler/Freezer Combos

Blood cooler/freezer combos are essential in healthcare, ensuring blood and plasma are stored safely. However, common issues can arise for blood storage conditions, including these:

  1. Importance of Environment
  2. Optimal Placement and Temperature Conditions
  3. Installation and Maintenance Considerations
  4. Understanding the Difference Between Medical and Standard Refrigeration
  5. Tailoring to Different Needs
  6. Technical Specifications and Hygiene Standards

1. Importance of Environment 

Blood cooler/freezer combis for blood storage conditions are as important as their features. Blood samples must be kept away from heat, light, and moisture. Therefore, blood cooler/freezer combis should be kept away from these factors.

2. Optimal Placement and Temperature Conditions

The cabinets must be placed on suitable floors in a blood cooler/freezer combi to prevent blood storage condition problems. This means the devices are not exposed to direct sunlight or heat sources like radiators. The ideal room temperature for the blood cooler should be between 15 and 32 degrees.

3. Installation and Maintenance Considerations

For these combis to work with full performance, attention should also be paid to the space between them and the surrounding objects or walls. The minimum distance to be left around the cabinet corresponds to 10 cm. In order not to shake the blood storage cabinets, it should be fully balanced. During installation, the door’s gasket should be checked to prevent leakage. The fact that the used electrical line is grounded also ensures safe use.

4. Understanding the Difference Between Medical and Standard Refrigeration

Medical coolers and refrigerators look the same in principle, but there are points where they differ. For this reason, the idea that refrigerators are an alternative to these medical coolers is wrong. Blood cooler/freezer combis have a temperature sensitivity of 4 degrees. According to the blood storage conditions in cabinets, this sensitivity varies between 2 and 8 degrees. With specially designed and suitable cabinets, problems that may occur in them are prevented without experiencing any issues.

5. Tailoring to Different Needs

Blood cooler/freezer combis are designed for different needs. While the general features of the cooler/freezer combis are similar, size and width are among the basic elements that make a difference. In addition to small-volume blood cabinets, high-volume alternatives are possible. As their volume increases, the amount of blood that can be stored also increases. The cabinets have drawers and plexiglass in the drawers. In this way, blood bags can be stored in the appropriate position according to blood storage conditions.

6. Technical Specifications and Hygiene Standards

The blood cooler/freezer combi models are changing regarding technical and functional features. The temperature ranges determined in the cabinets differ according to the blood component. Therefore, there are many answers to how many days the blood sample is stored. According to the blood storage conditions, variability is observed in the temperature ranges of the blood cabinets. The blood storage cabinets, designed for high hygiene standards, provide comfortable use. For this reason, precautions should be taken for problems that may occur in medical freezers.